[138][139], Hoover originally planned to make only one or two major speeches, and to leave the rest of the campaigning to proxies, as sitting presidents had traditionally done. [42] He made investments on every continent and had offices in San Francisco; London; New York City; Paris; Petrograd; and Mandalay, British Burma. ", Short, Brant. [125], Many wary Republican leaders cast about for an alternative candidate, such as Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon or former Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes. When the U.S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, and Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". [144] Lou Henry Hoover was an activist First Lady. "[69][70], The United States declared war upon Germany in April 1917 after Germany engaged in unrestricted submarine warfare against American vessels in British waters. House. [33] An open feud developed between Hoover and his boss, Ernest Williams, but company leaders defused the situation by offering Hoover a compelling position in China. My warmest sympathy and best wishes for your recovery. There were three solutions, all of which he tried in close collaboration with the media, which greatly admired him. Though he did not attend high school, Hoover learned bookkeeping, typing, and mathematics at a night school. (1936). Shots were fired by the police in a futile attempt to attain order, and two protesters were killed while many officers were injured. "[132] In the South, Hoover and the national party pursued a "lily-white" strategy, removing black Republicans from leadership positions in an attempt to curry favor with white Southerners. "[263] Two months earlier, on August 10, Hoover reached the age of 90, only the second U.S. president (after John Adams) to do so. [113], With the goal of encouraging wise business investments, Hoover made the Commerce Department a clearinghouse of information. President Herbert Hoover. Les crises se succèdent tous les jours. [114] Other efforts at eliminating waste included reducing labor losses from trade disputes and seasonal fluctuations, reducing industrial losses from accident and injury, and reducing the amount of crude oil spilled during extraction and shipping. At the 1940 Republican National Convention, Hoover again hoped for the presidential nomination, but it went to the internationalist Wendell Willkie, who lost to Roosevelt in the general election. [121], Hoover quietly built up support for a future presidential bid throughout the 1920s, but he carefully avoided alienating Coolidge, who was eligible to run for another term in the 1928 presidential election. The convention instead selected Senator Charles Curtis of Kansas. "[85] After U.S. government funding for the ARA expired in mid-1919, Hoover transformed the ARA into a private organization, raising millions of dollars from private donors. [131] Smith was more charismatic and gregarious than Hoover, but his campaign was damaged by anti-Catholicism and his overt opposition to Prohibition. By . [82] He also established the European Children's Fund, which provided relief to fifteen million children across fourteen countries. After she cabled back her acceptance of the proposal, Hoover briefly returned to the United States for their wedding. [1] Hoover's mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Ontario, Canada, before moving to Iowa in 1859. Before serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U.S. Food Administration, and served as the third U.S. Secretary of Commerce. The second solution was to gain the reputation as the humanitarian, deeply concerned in the world's troubles, such as famine in Belgium, as well as specific American problems such as he solved as food commissioner during world war. This was the longest retirement in presidential history until Jimmy Carter broke that record in September 2012. [53], During his senior year at Stanford, Hoover became smitten with a classmate named Lou Henry, though his financial situation precluded marriage at that time. In his nine major radio addresses Hoover primarily defended his administration and his philosophy of government, urging voters to hold to the "foundations of experience" and reject the notion that government interventionism could save the country from the Depression. He left the invited interest groups to negotiate agreements among themselves, which were then presented for adoption by states and localities. [74] He carefully selected men to assist in the agency leadership—Alonzo Taylor (technical abilities), Robert Taft (political associations), Gifford Pinchot (agricultural influence), and Julius Barnes (business acumen). Curtis was vice president under President Herbert Hoover for four years, much of it consumed by the nation's darkest economic times, the Great … The presidency of Herbert Hoover began on March 4, 1929, when Herbert Hoover was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on March 4, 1933.Hoover, a Republican, took office after a landslide victory in the 1928 presidential election over Democrat Al Smith of New York. [24] After working as a mine scout for a year, Hoover was hired by Bewick, Moreing & Co., a London-based company that operated gold mines in Western Australia. The commission recommended changes designed to strengthen the president's ability to manage the federal government. Although disaster response did not fall under the duties of the Commerce Department, the governors of six states along the Mississippi River specifically asked President Coolidge to appoint Hoover to coordinate the response to the flood. [161] Hoover refused to become closely involved in the congressional debate over the tariff, and Congress produced a tariff bill that raised rates for many goods. Nash. In the early and mid-1920s, Hoover's radio conferences played a key role in the organization, development, and regulation of radio broadcasting. [55] Though his Quaker upbringing strongly influenced his career, Hoover rarely attended Quaker meetings during his adult life. [145], On taking office, Hoover said that "given the chance to go forward with the policies of the last eight years, we shall soon with the help of God, be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this nation. [150], In late October 1929, the Stock Market Crash of 1929 occurred, and the worldwide economy began to spiral downward into the Great Depression. [9][10] In November 1885, Hoover was sent to Newberg, Oregon to live with his uncle John Minthorn, a Quaker physician and businessman whose own son had died the year before. [23], When Hoover graduated from Stanford in 1895, the country was in the midst of the Panic of 1893, and he initially struggled to find a job. Curtis, born in 1860, belonged to the … After the war, Hoover led the American Relief Administration, which provided food to the inhabitants of Central Europe and Eastern Europe. In any case, I apologize for the error, and appreciate the correction. One of the commissions started by Hoover, the Research Committee on Social Trends, was tasked with surveying the entirety of American society. The collection was renamed the Hoover War Library in 1922 and is now known as the Hoover Institution. [236] He rejected Roosevelt's offers to help coordinate relief in Europe,[237] but, with the help of old friends from the CRB, helped establish the Commission for Polish Relief. The stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, and the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency. [72] Hoover had hoped to join the administration in some capacity since at least 1916, and he obtained the position after lobbying several members of Congress and Wilson's confidant, Edward M. More issues arose in 1904, after the British government formed two separate royal commission to investigate Bewick, Moreing's labor practices and financial dealings in Western Australia. Both were widely influential, promoting greater uniformity between jurisdictions and tending to promote the automobile's priority in city streets. With the impending retirement of Coolidge, Hoover immediately emerged as the front-runner for the 1928 Republican nomination, and he quickly put together a strong campaign team led by Hubert Work, Will H. Hays, and Reed Smoot. [234] He expressed dismay at the persecution of Jews in Germany and believed that Hitler was mad, but did not present a threat to the U.S. Curtis received 64 votes on the presidential ballot at the 1928 Republican National Convention in Kansas City, out of 1,084 total. [135] Hoover's appeal to Southern white voters succeeded in cracking the "Solid South", and he won five Southern states. [209] Hoover and Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson focused on extending the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, which sought to prevent a naval arms race. [16], Hoover was a member of the inaugural "Pioneer Class" of Stanford University, entering in 1891 despite failing all the entrance exams except mathematics. Charles Curtis, Herbert Hoover's VP from 1929-1932, was the first person of color to be Vice President of the US. Curtis’s mother was a Native American who belonged to … Thanks to InstaPundit and Don Surber for the pointer. Hoover energetically gave a series of speeches and interviews denouncing the monopolistic practice, and demanding that it be ended. For his son, see, Hoover later became the first president born west of the. [220] The Democratic Party, including Al Smith and other national leaders, coalesced behind Roosevelt, while progressive Republicans like George Norris and Robert La Follette Jr. deserted Hoover. [99], Hoover envisioned the Commerce Department as the hub of the nation's growth and stability. [190] Hoover also continued to pursue the lily-white strategy, removing African Americans from positions of leadership in the Republican Party in an attempt to end the Democratic Party's dominance in the South. [213] In response to the Japanese invasion, Hoover and Secretary of State Stimson outlined the Stimson Doctrine, which held that the United States would not recognize territories gained by force. Hoover was appointed as the committee's chair and, with the assent of Congress and the executive branch, took charge of the distribution of relief to Americans in Europe. When asked how he felt on reaching the milestone, Hoover replied, "Too old. [102], Hoover demanded, and received, authority to coordinate economic affairs throughout the government. [238] After the beginning of the occupation of Belgium in 1940, Hoover provided aid for Belgian civilians, though this aid was described as unnecessary by German broadcasts. [196] Many of the deportations were overseen by state and local authorities who acted on the encouragement of Doak and the Department of Labor. Besides having his train and motorcades pelted with eggs and rotten fruit, he was often heckled while speaking, and on several occasions, the Secret Service halted attempts to kill Hoover by disgruntled citizens, including capturing one man nearing Hoover carrying sticks of dynamite, and another already having removed several spikes from the rails in front of the president's train. "[246] On Hoover's initiative, a school meals program in the American and British occupation zones of Germany was begun on April 14, 1947; the program served 3,500,000 children. The act also doubled the top estate tax rate, cut personal income tax exemptions, eliminated the corporate income tax exemption, and raised corporate tax rates. Hoover has been memorialized in the names of several things, including the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River and numerous elementary, middle, and high schools across the United States. "[146] Having seen the fruits of prosperity brought by technological progress, many shared Hoover's optimism, and the already bullish stock market climbed even higher on Hoover's accession. [77] Determined to avoid rationing, Hoover established set days for people to avoid eating specified foods and save them for soldiers' rations: meatless Mondays, wheatless Wednesdays, and "when in doubt, eat potatoes". [116] Other accomplishments included winning the agreement of U.S. Steel to adopt an eight-hour workday, and the fostering of the Colorado River Compact, a water rights compact among Southwestern states. Curtis' slow fade from our collective memory is surprising considering his place in the American story. The Life of Herbert Hoover: Masters of Emergencies, 1917-1918; The Presidency of Herbert C. Hoover; The President and Protest: Hoover, MacArthur, and the Bonus Riot; Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism; An Independent Woman: The Life of Lou Henry Hoover; Trivia.

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